cPanel is a Linux-based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site. cPanel utilizes a 3 tier structure that provides capabilities for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web browser.
In addition to the GUI, cPanel also has command line and API-based access that allows third party software vendors, web hosting organizations, and developers to automate standard system administration processes.
cPanel is designed to function either as a dedicated server or virtual private server. The latest cPanel version supports installation on CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), and CloudLinux OS. cPanel 11.30 is the last major version to support FreeBSD.
Application-based support includes Apache, PHP, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Perl, and BIND (DNS). Email based support includes POP3, IMAP, and SMTP services. cPanel is accessed via https on port 2083.
Once installed, cPanel cannot be easily removed. cPanel’s FAQ states that the best way to uninstall cPanel is by reformatting the server. However, uninstall guides are available online for expert server administrators who do not wish to reformat their server. Similarly, it should only be installed on a freshly installed operating system with minimal prior configuration.
cPanel, Inc. is a privately owned corporation headquartered in Houston, Texas.The software was originally designed as the control panel for Speed Hosting, a now-defunct web hosting company. The original author of cPanel, John Nick Koston, had a stake in Speed Hosting. Webking quickly began using cPanel after their merger with Speed Hosting. The new company moved their servers to Virtual Development Inc. (VDI), a now-defunct hosting facility. Following an agreement between Koston and VDI, cPanel was only available to customers hosted directly at VDI. At the time there was little competition in the control panel market, with the main choices being VDI and Alabanza. cPanel 3 was released in 1999: main additions over cPanel 2 were an automatic upgrade and the Web Host Manager (WHM). The interface was also improved when Carlos Rego of WizardsHosting made what became the default theme of cPanel.
Eventually due to internal problems between VDI and Koston, cPanel split into a separate program called WebPanel; this version was run by VDI. Without the lead programmer, VDI was not able to continue any work on cPanel and eventually stopped supporting it completely. Koston kept working on cPanel while also working at BurstNET. Eventually Nick left BurstNET on good terms to focus fully on cPanel. cPanel has since been updated and improved over the years.
The Domain Name System (DNS) has a tree structure or hierarchy, with each non-RR (resource record) node on the tree being a domain name. A subdomain is a domain that is part of a larger domain; the only domain that is not also a subdomain is the root domain. For example,
east.example.com are subdomains of the
example.com domain, which in turn is a subdomain of the
com top-level domain (TLD). A “subdomain” expresses relative dependence, not absolute dependence: for example,
wikipedia.org comprises a subdomain of the
org domain, and
en.wikipedia.org comprises a subdomain of the domain
wikipedia.org. In theory this subdivision can go down to 127 levels deep, and each DNS label can contain up to 63 characters, as long as the whole domain name does not exceed a total length of 255 characters, but in practice most domain registries limit at 253 characters.
Subdomains in this context are defined by editing the DNS zone file pertaining to the parent domain. However, there is a lively debate over the use of the term “subdomain” when referring to names which map to the Address record (A; host) and various other types of zone records which may map to any public IP address destination and any type of server. Certain[which?] groups insist that it is inappropriate to use the term “subdomain” to refer to any mapping other than that provided by zone NS (name server) records and any server-destination other than that of a domain name server. Notwithstanding the terminology debate, many prominent public DNS providers[which?] use the term “subdomain” to refer to names which map to A (host) records which may map to any type of host or destination-server.
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